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Python Source -- PVM


  • Linked list of PyFrameObject -- x86 stack frame
  • f_back function -- esp, ebp
 Namespace: mapping from name (string) to object (pointer)
  • f_buitins
  • f_globals
  • f_locals
 Actually, we already know the needed size of stack size when compiling PyCodeObject, as f_stacksize.

Another thing is that, the use of closure will also cause extra space in the PyFrameObject.

We can get access to the frame object at runtime through Python interface, which is basically a hack based on the exception mechanism of VM.


One .py file is one module, which is the highest level of scope.

How to understand assignment in Python: Binding an object to name in specified scope. It can also be viewed as a "constraint".

Object also has its own namespace, in which the method names and attribute names are defined.

LGB rule

Priority in descending order:

  • L: function / method - local
  • G: module - global scope
  • B: builtin scope

Considering closure, we have:


  • E: Enclosing function


Force use the name in global scope

Runtime Framework

  • Environment Initialization: PyEval_EvalFrameEx
    • PyFrameOjbect's information
    • PyCodeOjbect's information
    • f_stacktop
    • main thread
  • Loop
    • why: exception

Thread information: PyThreadState. Imported modules are shared across the threads. Sync -- GIL, or Global Interpreter Lock.

Process abstraction: PyInterpreterState

The interaction between frame and thread:

When the evaluation starts, we will use PyThreadState_GET() to get current active thread object, then set its frame. When we need to create new PyFrameObject object, we will retrieve old frame from thread state, create new execution environment, link the new frame to old one.